Chemical formula: HNO3
Nitric acid is a highly caustic, colourless, non-flammable liquid with pungent, characteristic odour. After a longer period of storage, it turns yellow. It dissolves rapidly in water, giving off heat. It is an unstable compound, decomposing from heat and light, giving off nitrogen oxide and dioxide. When diluted it reacts with many metals giving off flammable and explosive hydrogen. It is a strong oxidising agent and may cause the ignition of flammable substances. It is an active chemical compound and most of its reactions are rapid or even explosive. Vapours of concentrated nitric acid cause severe inflammation of the respiratory tract. In case of contact with skin, it causes necrosis and deep changes due to skin charring.
Application and use
Concentrated nitric acid (V) is used in the production of explosives and organic dyes.
Packing and transport
Concentrated nitric acid (V) is transported by aluminium cisterns or tanks with the U/N attestation mark and the alphanumeric code. Rail and truck cisterns should be marked in accordance with the regulations on transporting hazardous materials.
Concentrated nitric acid (V) is a hazardous material according to ADR, RID regulations:
- Class: 8,
- Classification code:CO1,
- Packing group: I,
- Hazard identification number: 885,
- UN number: 2031,
- Labels:8 and 5.1.
Concentrated nitric acid (V) should be transported in aluminium cisterns or tanks or in other containers resistant to it, according to the transport regulations for hazardous materials in force.
Concentrated nitric acid (V) should be stored in air-tight aluminium or other tanks which are resistant to it. Concentrated nitric acid (V) should not be exposed to sun light, as it slowly decomposes in a temperature of between 250˚C and 350˚C, which results in decreased HNO3 concentration with increased nitrogen oxides content in the product. Ventilation systems should be used in closed storage areas.